Meeting the expectations of the design

At Cooper, we’ve historically advocated a clear and explicit separation of interaction design and software development efforts. Underlying this position is the assertion that the job of interaction designers is to serve as user advocates. We approach the design problem not by asking “What can we deliver?” but “What do people desire?”

We’re guarding against the urge to focus on the development and delivery of software, hardware, and services before we understand its value to the humans using the system. By no means does that suggest our designs should ignore business and technological factors, only that our designs should be influenced primarily by our the motivations of the users represented by our personas.

The design must meet the needs of its users, and it follows that the product’s creators (designers, business folks, developers, etc.) deliver a product that meets the expectations of the design.

But how to design so that those expectations can be met? It’s a delicate balance. Ideally, there is a healthy interplay of possibilities and limits between the business factors, technology issues, and design motivations. Each group shares the goal of delivering the best product possible with the time, budget, and expertise available.

Here are some ways to keep a user-centered focus without losing sight of the factors that influence development:

Understand the business situation

Get a clear sense of the breadth of the design mandate: Is management pulling out all the stops to create a category-killer, or have they set a firm cap on the time and resources available to the project?

Know your medium (but not too well)

Understand enough about the technologies underlying the product so you can leverage things it does well without falling into the trap of designing to technical capabilities rather than user needs.

Listen to developers’ concerns and ideas

Recognize that every one of your design decisions impacts the work developers will need to do to implement and support them. Solicit their input on the design’s feasibility and seek their advice on ways to make the design more achievable. Your concern should not be that you’re signing developers up for hard work (after all, solving hard problems is what being a developer is all about)—it’s signing them up for unnecessary hard work.

Don’t concede your personas’ needs to business or technological limitations

If you’ve done your homework, you know what the product needs to do (and not do) to satisfy its users. If technical or business issues are in conflict with a persona’s needs, speak up. Demonstrate the value of your design to business and technology stakeholders to help them see the merits of accommodating the design intention.

Pick your battles

Be comfortable with letting some technology and business considerations trump design ideals. There are situations where a less-perfect standard implementation of one feature means more time to develop a custom feature that truly delights your users. Too many of these is death by a thousand cuts, but everything doesn’t have to be ideal for the things that really matter to be fantastic.

The reconciliation of technology, business, and user-centered design is ultimately a business decision. The most fabulous design will never see the light of day if it doesn’t meet business objectives or isn’t technically feasible. By understanding the business and technical landscape, working across disciplines, advocating for your users’ needs, and knowing when to compromise, you can produce successful designs—successful because they meet the needs of users and the needs of developers and business stakeholders.

Tim McCoy

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